Avoid placing water-soluble (quick-release) nitrogen fertilizer directly in the planting hole as this may cause injury to roots. Treated burlap is sometimes left in place, but it may not decompose very quickly and could impede root development. Fall Planting Guidelines for Northeast Ohio August 29, 2017 . Research has shown that improper planting technique, particularly planting too deep, is a major cause of tree and shrub mortality in maintained landscapes. Generally, the uppermost structural roots within the rootball should be planted within 1 - 3 inches of the soil surface, measured 3 - 4 inches from the trunk. The trunk should be held as straight as possible as soil is replaced around the new planting. INSTRUCTIONS FOR PLANTING FROM ROOT CONTROL AND ROOT MAKER BAGS-Remove the root control or root maker bag before planting the tree.-Cut the fabric from … Yes, I know Paul is big on planting from seed, but apparently my thumb isn't that green.I can get a seed to sprout, but it seems to die soon after. Roots require oxygen to thrive and will usually decline in a compacted, anaerobic soil. After 12 weeks, water weekly until roots are established. For example, a maple tree that stands 15 feet tall has roots that spread 15 (or more!) If the rootball is stable in the soil, then it may not need to be staked. Mark the north side of the tree in the nursery, and rotate tree to face north at the site when ever possible. Shrubs: 1.5m–4m high; Trees: 4m and above; Floodways. Beginning back in the 1990’s, researchers, like the late Dr. Bonnie Appleton and the late Dr. Alex Shigo, began questioning and updating many of the long-established cultural guidelines practiced by landscape and nursery professionals. On larger caliper trees (2-inch caliper and greater), consistent and frequent watering is necessary beyond the first growing season. In most instances, stakes should be removed after one growing season. Alternatively, if the trunk flare is not well-developed, the rootball can be probed for structural roots using a surveyor's chaining pin or similar tool. Tree and Shrub Planting Guidelines Printable PDF Location Selection. Food Safety Bare root plants are dug from nursery fields in the spring or fall while in a dormant state although they are not planted until the spring. Sun/shade-Full sun means that a site receives a minimum of 6-8 hours of direct sunlight per day. Master Composter Program For example, a 2-inch caliper tree would require approximately 2 years for re-establishment, meaning that the tree would need to be watered weekly (or more depending on weather, etc.) They are voluntary industry consensus standards developed by TCIA and written by a committee called the Accredited Standards Committee (ASC) A300, whose mission is to develop consensus performance standards based on current research and sound practice for writing specifications to manage trees, shrubs, and other woody plants. Are there any hard and fast rules for planting them? Try to maintain the integrity of the rootball until it is secure in the planting hole. Gilman, Edward F. professor, Department of Environmental Horticulture, and Sadowski, Laura P., horticultural information specialist, Harris, R. W., Ph.D., Arboriculture: Integrated Management of Landscape Trees, Shrubs and Vines, 2nd ed., Regents/Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliff s, NJ; LCC#91- 19477. Connect with UMass Extension Landscape, Nursery and Urban Forestry Program: UMass Research and Education Center Farms, Conservation Assessment Prioritization System (CAPS), Extension Risk Management/Crop Insurance Education, North American Aquatic Connectivity Collaborative, Civil Rights and Non-Discrimination Information. Submit a Sample Besides adding beauty to your landscape, a tree helps the environment by taking up carbon dioxide, the greenhouse gas that is such a big driver in climate change. Match the needs of the plant to the site and choose the "right plant for the right location", but also consider existing plant communities and avoid planting monocultures. To complete the backfilling, smooth the surface soil and check to ensure that the trunk flare is completely exposed. This process causes the loss of a large portion of the plants feeder roots which is why they must be planted 6-8 weeks before the stress of heat or cold. Extensive top pruning to compensate for root loss is no longer recommended. Container grown plants have more leeway and be planted as late as May and October. For example, a mixed hardwood plantation may concentrate black walnut seedlings on the deeper soils … Container grown plants will suffer the least amount of transfer shock but are the most susceptible to root girdling. When planting a group of plants, rototill the soil to a depth of 12 to 15 inches. If a decision is made to leave treated burlap in place, remove as much as possible, or at least the top one-third covering the rootball. Prior planning is the best course when planting trees or shrubs. Add … Planting arrangement refers to the pattern or distribution of tree and shrub species across a planting site. tree & shrub planting guidelines. Changes to soil pH and other amendments may require 6 months to take effect. Minnesota DNR; University of Minnesota Forest Resources Extension - My Minnesota Woods Nourish Your New Trees & Shrubs. Based on that research, recommendations were formulated that the planting area be loosened and aerated approximately 3 times the diameter of the rootball, and 3 to 5 times the rootball diameter if the site soil is compacted. Synthetic burlap needs to be removed entirely. Fertilizer applications should be based entirely on soil test results. Research has found that some tree wraps may not provide the protection that was originally intended. 5.2 Tree Planting ... 10.2 Guidelines for tree protection ... the tree or group of trees, the greater the influence of the windbreak. Trees can influence the flow of water in several ways. The application of water 1 or 2 times during the process will also help to reduce air pockets. Visit the University of Georgia. Lightly pack the soil around and under the bare roots or the root ball to eliminate air pockets. feet … According to research, "in the Northern part of the U.S., the establishment period, for recently transplanted trees, is approximately one year for each one-inch of trunk caliper" (Dr. Gary Watson, Morton Arboretum). Pre-planting care Many bare-root trees are already dead when planted. Generally, … Click on their title for more details: 1. A plant with circling roots that are larger than the width of a finger is in danger of girdling the trunk and choking the tree and should not be purchased. Volcano mulching, where mulch is piled in a high cone against the trunk, should be avoided. Place two 1-gph emitters 12 inches from the base of a tree or shrub 1 to 5 feet tall. Note: These guidelines are for established plants (1 year for shrubs, 3 years for trees). A helpful booklet, School Orchards, is published by The Tree Council member organisation Learning Through Landscapes, and is included in Stakes should be removed after one year. It should never touch the trunk. By: Schuch, Ursula K. The majority of tree and shrub roots lie within the top two feet of soil and extend one and a half to four times the width of the crown, the above ground portion of the plants. Do not choose plant material based solely on the merit of its native status. Most trees do best in full sun although … the tree, storage and other detrimental activities within tree planting zones must be avoided. This is enough to meet the annual needs of 18 people.\" Trees also add beauty, increase the value of your home, provide cooling shade and offer shelter for wildlife. Immediately after planting, water the planting area and water the rootball deeply; 2-3 gallons of water per inch trunk diameter has been recommended. A tree with twisted roots will not be as stable as one with strong, straight roots. Seeds may be sown into individual containers or into seed trays. You can help minimize tree-related outages and ensure reliable electric service by choosing the right tree or shrub … Exposure-The south and west are generally warmer and drier although sites on the west may be exposed to westerly winds. Newly planted trees or shrubs require more frequent watering than established trees and shrubs. When the natural base flare is not apparent after planting then the depth is incorrect. As a result, trees commonly exhibit what is known as “transplant shock.” However, if the rootball is unstable and staking is required, try to attach stakes low on the trunk and allow some sway. Do not test drainage this way if it has just rained or if the ground has not thawed. When planting a single tree or shrub, dig the planting … Some bark injuries may occur because of damage from the sun (sunscald) or temperature extremes (frost cracks). Although burlap may decompose as much as may be removed should as it can wick moisture away from the roots. Water is a critical factor in the successful establishment of landscape plants. The downward fall of rain and hail is initially absorbed or deflected by trees, reducing its force. Properly fertilized plants are better able to tolerate stress, drought, insects and pests. Contact Us Zoning-check with local zoning boards for regulations. Tree roots need water, but they also need oxygen. Immediately after planting 2-3 gallons of water per inch of trunk diameter should be applied to the planting area. INSTRUCTIONS FOR PLANTING FROM ROOT CONTROL AND ROOT MAKER BAGS-Remove the root control or root maker bag before planting the tree.-Cut the fabric from top to bottom and peel it away.-Occasional roots may catch in the fabric – cut with hand pruners. A Best Management Practice, ISA- Arborist News). Connecticut Native Tree and Shrub Availabilty List, Tree, Shrub, Vine, and Groundcover Fertilization. Home If tree wrap is to be used, it is recommended that the appropriate material be selected, checked frequently, and the wrap be removed during periods of active growth. Mulching is a cultural practice that can be of benefit in the landscape when done correctly. Watering: Water slowly and deeply immediately after planting and once a week or more as needed during dry conditions to keep the soil moist. When planting a tree, think about how that tree will form as it grows: Will it stay within the available space at maturity? Soil Nutrient Analysis Lab Taking Care of Your Trees. Keep plants in the shade until placed in the ground. All planning done for new planting, tree replacement programs and other tree related programs or works which impact on Council trees shall be done in consultation with Infrastructure Services. In poorly-drained heavy clay soil, dig holes one to two inches shallower than the root ball. Each site should be evaluated for the following: After site evaluation, select plant material that will adapt well to that location. I just ordered a bunch of seedlings. Review our visual guides to planting trees both within and outside of a high fire-threat area, … Planting a tree is a wonderful way to pay it forward to future generations. When planting in a floodway, within an overland flow path, ensure: Trees, shrubs and ground cover are five metres outside the floodway area; Tree branches have a two metre clearance A soil sample should be sent to the, Native plants should be selected if possible as they will have a better tolerance to climate conditions, drought tolerance, hardiness zones, insect pests, and diseases. Mulch: Apply two to four inches of mulch around the tree over the area of the root ball to reduce the growth of weeds and retain water in the soil. Figure 1. No matter which method you use to plant your trees and shrubs, water them well after planting. During transport and handling the roots should remain moist and protected from wind and sun. In tropical and subtropical climates where trees grow year round, any time is a good time to plant a tree, provided that sufficient water is available. Consider selecting plants that: have no significant pest problems, are not invasive, are drought tolerant, have extended seasonal appeal and that will thrive in the selected site. When the water has drained away, resume backfilling and water again thoroughly. Not all trees require staking and may develop smaller root systems if staked. Fertilizing Trees and Shrubs, UMass Extension IPM Fact Sheet series, July 2000. For a thick hedge, plant a double row of trees … When roots are planted too deep, plants often decline and do not thrive. While backfilling the hole, it has been customary to tamp the soil heavily to avoid leaving large air pockets. These roots hold the plant … Proximity to street/sidewalks-Plantings may be subjected to excess salt and compaction. However, research revealed that the fibrous or absorbing roots of most woody ornamentals are usually found within the top 6 to 12 inches of soil and that root development will often extend beyond the canopy or dripline. Trees planted in groups are much better protected in high winds. Mulching can help reduce weeds, retain moisture, and moderate soil temperatures. GUIDELINES FOR TREE PLANTING ZONES Trees should be located in a favourable location for healthy tree growth. Evergreens, especially the broadleaf variety, are best planted in the spring although the needled species may be planted safely in the early fall. Inappropriate planting or landscaping in floodways can obstruct water flow and increase flooding. We inspire people to plant, nurture, and celebrate trees. 2.3. The Street Tree Planting Plan should be submitted early in the design process to ensure the proposed road design allows for sustainable street tree planting opportunities. Part 9 – Tree Risk Assessment 10. Juglans toxicity-Trees or shrubs that are susceptible to Juglans toxicity should not be planted within 80 feet of a Black Walnut tree or where one has been in the past several years. Newly planted trees and shrubs need regular and consistent watering until root systems establish. PLANTING: Thoroughly water root ball in container before planting. Master Gardener Program. Dig shallow planting holes one and a half to two times as wide as the root ball. Bark acts as a barrier to exclude insects and disease organisms from the vascular system, which lies directly under the bark. If you’re planting a single hedge, place your trees 30cm apart. Whitcomb, C. E., Ph.D., Establishment and Maintenance of Landscape Plants, Lacebark, Inc., Stillwater, OK; LCC#87-50632. This location should receive an adequate amount of sunlight and rain. They should be watered at planting time and at these intervals: 1-2 weeks after planting, water daily. For many years, it was a common practice to automatically use tree wrap on newly planted or thin-barked trees in an effort to reduce sun or temperature damage to the bark. Drainage-To test the soil drainage, dig a hole 18 inches deep and fill it with water. It is important to ensure that the seeds are planted at the recommend soil depth. Soak bare-rooted trees or shrubs for about 30 minutes prior to planting. Will the branching characteristics have the strength to develop a form suitable for the site? When planting deciduous shrubs… Mulching helps reduce weeds, moderate soil temperatures, conserve soil moisture in the root zone and add an aesthetic quality to the landscape. Mulch piled against the trunk may also provide a refuge for rodents, such as voles, which may then feed on and girdle the bark. The hole should be as deep as the root ball and 2-3 times as wide, 3-5 times as wide in compacted soil. Tree planting is a widely used method to regenerate cutover sites and return cropland or pastures back to forested land. Watson, G. W., Ph.D. and Himelick, E. B., Principles and Practice of Planting Trees and Shrubs, 1997. International Society of Arboriculture, PO Box GG, Savoy, IL 61874. Tree and Shrub Planting Guidelines - October 4, 2006 Jeff Schalau, County Director, Associate Agent, Agriculture & Natural Resources Arizona Cooperative Extension, Yavapai County. To properly plant trees and shrubs, (especially balled and burlapped (B&B) plant material, but also container stock), start by locating the point at which the trunk flare begins. The Connecticut Cooperative Extension System is an equal opportunity employer and program provider. Water until the ground freezes. This site is maintained by Center for Agriculture, Food and the Environment in the College of Natural Sciences. Many people believe that spring is the preferred season for planting trees and other shrubs and flowers. Proper planting is critical to their survival and long-term success. Site Preparation: As with a B&B plant, dig a wide hole with sloped sides. Trunk strength, size of the canopy, wind direction and site traffic problems should all be considered before staking a tree. While tree limbs grow tall, their roots grow wide. Set top of root ball flush to grade or 1-2 inches higher in slowly draining soils. Once the hole has been prepared work quickly to get the plant in place before the roots are exposed to the drying effects of sun and wind. HGEC Fact Sheets, Plant Diagnostic Lab Understanding the site and having safety measures in place will ensure greater success. Cover the exposed root ball top with mulch. See the File:Trees-4-Detail.pdf which supplements the tree planting guidelines. When choosing plant material, it is also important to know: cultural requirements, growth habit and ultimate size, maintenance needs, pest (disease & insect) resistance, function and potential invasiveness. A million members, donors, and partners support … Never plant a dry plant. Depending on soil type, rootball size, weather, location etc., the rootballs of newly planted trees may need water every day, 2-3 times per week or once a week; more frequent irrigation may be needed during the summer season or in times of extended drought. The root system of a tree can spread 1 ½ to 2 times the height of the tree therefore fertilizer should be spread over the entire root area, not just near the base of the tree. It is very important that prior to any sort of … Pruning young shrubs is not as critical as pruning young trees, but take care to use the same principles to encourage good branch structure. 4.0 STREET TREE PLANTING PLAN Street Tree Planting shall complement and conform to the Region’s Streetscape Policy and Towards Great Regional Streets Design Guidelines. Guidelines for planting apple and pear tree planting and maintenance These notes are written to assist you with the practical aspects of planting and taking care of apple and pear trees. Do not leave any protruding points of wire, which could possibly cause injury to people, pets etc. PURPOSE Establish woody plants to— • Maintain or improve desirable plant diversity, productivity, and health by establishing woody plants. Improper planting depth is one of the leading causes of plant failure. Planting trees allows one to adjust tree species and density on their acres while influencing wildlife habitat as well. Most trees do best in full sun although several maple varieties, dogwoods, hornbeams, beech, spruce, and hemlock will tolerate some shade. In addition, some tree wraps were found to retain excess moisture beneath the wrap. A watering schedule needs to be established, as the important thing to remember is that the rootball and planting area need water on a regular basis for the tree to become established. Part 8 - Root Management Standard 9. In some cases, the trunk flare junction may be buried in the top of the rootball and it may be necessary to loosen the burlap or soil at the top of the ball to properly locate the junction. It is recommended that the planting hole depth be no deeper than the height of the root ball, as measured from the trunk flare to the bottom of the rootball. The usual method for staking is three wires to be fastened to rubber loops about 1/3 up the height of the trunk and attached to stakes that are placed outside the perimeter of the root ball. Avoid "volcano mulching" where mulch is placed high around the base of the tree trunk and resembles a volcano. In addition, research showed that the accepted practices governing the size and shape of the planting hole, nature of the backfill mixture, pruning at planting time, tree wrapping, etc. It is hoped that these guidelines, together with the selection of appropriate and healthy plant material, will be of help in promoting improved plant health in the landscape. During the growing season, the plant should be checked daily and watered to keep the soil mix damp but not soaking wet. They made need to be soaked before planting. TREE/SHRUB ESTABLISHMENT . Thorough soil preparation is essential for healthy plant growth. Bare root plants should be planted in the early spring while still dormant. The standards are divided into parts, based on tree care practices. Along the border of the transmission line right-of-way, plant only small trees or shrubs no taller than 10 feet. Additional drawings regarding tree planting are available in the references section below, as well as at the following 2 websites: . Selected species should be native (. Balled and burlapped plants are field-grown and are dug up with a firm root ball that is secured with burlap, twine, or wire. Pull any mulch or burlap away from the base of the trunk to ascertain where the trunk begins to flare out which will determine the actual planting depth, do not assume that the level of soil from the nursery is any indication. Soils that are heavily compacted should be aerated. This placement height is lower than was formerly recommended but it allows the tree to sway, which encourages a strong trunk. Mulch should be placed at a depth of 2-3”, 3 times the diameter of the root ball, and should taper to a depth of 1-2” as it gets closer to the root ball. Research has shown that improper planting technique, particularly planting too deep, is a major cause of tree and shrub mortality in maintained landscapes. Improper planting techniques, particularly planting too deep, were found to be a major cause of tree mortality in managed landscapes. Many urban and suburban landscape sites have been so modified and the microclimate so changed through the placement of buildings, underground wires, pavement, driveways, traffic, soil compaction, etc., that some native plants may not perform as well as non-native plants. Fall is a good time to plant evergreen trees in the Verde Valley area. Plant deciduous shade trees on the south, east, and west sides of a house to cast shade in summer and allow warming in winter. The addition of an organic soil amendment may be called for if the existing soil is of poor quality, such as excessively sandy or heavy clay soils, or those consisting of undesirable fill material. Water plants thoroughly before planting to saturate the root ball with water. Kujawski, R., Ph.D., and Ryan, H.D., PhD. Upon receipt of a request for planting, accompanied by a plan and typical cross section, The stakes should be driven 12” deep into the firm soil. Cut away and remove any rope, twine, real or synthetic burlap, or plastic. The soil is removed from the roots and if they are to be overwintered they are held in temperature and humidity-controlled storage. However, improper mulching can impair plant health and may lead to the decline of the plant material. Healthy Homes Appleton, B. L., Ph.D., "Questioning Tradition," American Nurseryman, Sept. 1, 1993. In the event that some of the soil should fall away from the roots, simply proceed with the planting, taking care to ensure that the roots do not dry out from sun or wind. If the permanent site is not ready when the bare root plant arrives it should be temporarily planted in a shallow, protected area. The root system of a tree that is planted too deep will slowly suffocate. Resources from UMass Extension and the Center for Agriculture, Food and the Environment: ag.umass.edu/coronavirus. The bark on a tree or shrub is as important as skin to an animal. While there are many opinions on the method and value of staking trees at planting time, staking may not be necessary for all trees. UConn Home and Garden Education Center, 2017. The planting hole should be prepared before the tree or shrub is moved to the site. Do not overwater as plants may drown from a lack of oxygen to their roots or develop root rot. Water Requirements Immediately after planting 2-3 gallons of water per inch of trunk diameter should be applied to the planting area. Planting Guidelines Container-grown Trees and Shrubs A container-grown plant is, quite simply, one which has been produced and offered for sale in some form of container, often a plastic pot. Match the needs of the plant to the site. UConn Extension Choosing trees to plant near underground utilities. The choice of what to plant depends on the purpose of the planting, the site and soil conditions and the availability of the seed, seedlings, or cuttings. According to the U.S. Department of Agriculture, \"One acre of forest absorbs six tons of carbon dioxide and puts out four tons of oxygen. Too deep planting can also encourage the formation of circling roots will girdle or … Wide, shallow holes encourage horizontal root growth that trees and shrubs naturally produce. required some modification, paving the way for new planting guidelines. Services of an arborist may be required in these assessments. Regardless of planting season, using the proper planting method is critical to long-term success of trees and shrubs in landscapes. In addition, research has shown that accepted practices governing the size and shape of the planting hole and the nature of the backfill mixture require some modification. We recommend trees are planted about 2 metres apart, but you can plant them 1-5 metres apart depending on your space and plan. Thanks to their work and the work done by other researchers, including Dr. Gary Watson, Dr. Carl Whitcomb, Dr. Richard Harris, and Dr. Ed Gilman, long-held landscape practices were modified or changed in order to improve overall plant health in the managed landscape setting. The new method is often called the “Improved Planting Standard” and it is based on a wide, shallow planting hole and using no soil amendments in the backfilled … When planting holes are dug deeper than the height of the rootball, the plant often settles, resulting in the trunk flare and the structural roots being planted too deep. Slope-Extra care must be taken when planting on a slope. Mulch that is placed against the trunk encourages decay, allows entry points for diseases and pests, and gives cover to voles and rodents. By: Schuch, Ursula K. The majority of tree and shrub roots lie within the top two feet of soil and extend one and a half to four times the width of the crown, the above ground portion of the plants. However, this practice often results in the soil being packed so firmly as to drive out all the fine air spaces needed for a well-aerated soil. Tree Planting Zones must not include an area where an easement is present. 2 or more mostly evergreen or semi-evergreen trees or shrubs; ... or the trees in the hedge are protected by a ‘tree preservation ... damage your property or grow too high. Let it sit overnight and if the water has not drained by morning, the drainage is poor. Wavy lines look more natural than regimented rows of trees. Newly planted trees and shrubs require 1 ½” water per week until new root growth becomes established. Once the planting hole is ready, carefully set the rootball so that the trunk flare is 1 - 2 inches above the existing grade. This choice may or may not be a "native" plant. Planting Guidelines: Container Trees and Shrubs. Trees can bring so much to any space and community including added aesthetics, cleaner air, and increased property value. Research has shown that rigidly staked trees may develop a smaller root system and decreased trunk taper. Container-grown plants are often shrubs or ground covers so the trunk flare does not exist or is difficult to find. Hazards: Trees can be protection concerns for homes and residents. The City of Aurora reserves the right to select the tree species, the number of trees planted per location, and planting location within the parkway. Alder, apple and crabapple, azalea, basswood, cotoneaster, hydrangea, lilac, mountain laurel, peony, pine, privet, rhododendron, spruce, silver maple, white birch, and yew are particularly sensitive. Water the rootball and planting area immediately after backfilling. Your new trees and shrubs need a good home in nutrient-rich soil. 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